7th Einstein Telescope Symposium: 'the first joint ET-LIGO 3G meeting'

chaired by Michele Punturo
from to (Europe/Rome)
at Florence
Villa Finaly, Chancellerie des Universités de Paris Italy, Via Bolognese, 134 R, 50139 Firenze.
The 7th ET Symposium is hosted by the Villa Finaly in Firenze. The focus of the meeting is on the synergies and convergences between the Einstein Telescope project and the LIGO 3G idea. What is the future of the GW astronomy and astrophysics? Should a 3rd generation observatory be a unique global infrastructure? Is possible to have a mixed network of infrastructures composed by a 3rd generation observatory and a series of advanced detectors?

The workshop is preceded by a meeting focused on the next H2020 call on integration of research infrastructures to be held in the afternoon on February 1st (2:30pm CET).
The workshop is an ELiTES event.

Scientific committee: Matteo Barsuglia, Jo van den Brand, Federico Ferrini, Andreas Freise, Harald Lück, Vuk Mandic, Michele Punturo, David Reitze, Fulvio Ricci, Sheila Rowan, Bangalore S. Sathyaprakash, David Shoemaker.

Local organising committee: E. Morucci, M.Punturo
Slides unknown type filedown arrow
Support erika.morucci@ego-gw.it
Go to day
  • Tuesday, 2 February 2016
    • 08:50 - 10:45 Global Scenario
      Session on Global Scenario, Science targets for a 3G observatories, requirements and configurations of a 3G network of Observatories and detectors
      • 08:50 Welcome 5'
      • 08:55 Motivations. (Why we are here) 5'
        The targets of the present workshop are presented
        Speaker: Michele Punturo (INFN Perugia)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 09:00 3G science 40'
        a) What are the ultimate science goals for ground GW detectors? (e.g., see all BH inspirals in universe with significant signal >1 Hz)  
        b) What will we already have done / can we do with aLIGO/AdV by 2030 (or so): guess e.g.,  3x better than design sensitivity to 10 Hz 
        c) is what remains enough scope to motivate new Observatories? does it point to specific design needs (e.g., LF, triangles, number of observatories)? 
        d) given the long term perspective of a 3rd generation GW observatory, what is it that remains? How to assess the scientific importance and needs of the currently unknown? 
        e) what is the possible configuration of the future mixed network of 2G+ detectors and 3G observatories; specifically, is there a role for ~3-4 km surface instruments?
        f) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: B Sathyaprakash
        Material: Slides pdf filedown arrow
      • 09:40 Q&A: Urgent questions 1 15'
        Speaker: Prof. Alicia M Sintes (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
      • 09:55 Multi-messenger in 3G scenario 20'
        a) What are the multi-messenger physics in a 3G scenario; also with LISA? 
        b) What are the e.m. detectors we expect in the next two decades?
        c) What actions from GW community should be taken to facilitate this?
        d) what GW network capabilities are needed?
        e) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: massimiliano razzano (Physics Department of the University of Pisa and INFN-Pisa)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 10:15 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Prof. Alicia M Sintes (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    • 10:45 - 11:05 Coffee Break
    • 11:05 - 13:00 Global Scenario
      Session on Global Scenario, Science targets for a 3G observatories, requirements and configurations of a 3G network of Observatories and detectors
      • 11:05 Requirements of a 3G observatory 20'
        1) What are the requirements of a 3G observatory? 
            Possible keywords: 
               a) wideband; 
               b) capacity to resolve the two polarisations;
               c) longevity 
               d) capacity to host different topologies
        2) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Harald Lueck (Leibniz Universitaet Hannover)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 11:25 Discussion 15'
        Speaker: Andreas Freise
      • 11:40 Research Infrastructures: costs and characteristics of an underground infrastructure like E.T. 25'
        - What are the scaling laws (performance and cost) for an underground observatory as a function of length?
        - What are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Jo van den Brand (Nikhef)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 12:05 Research Infrastructures: costs and characteristics of a surface infrastructure that satisfies the observatory requirements 25'
        - What are the scaling laws (performance and cost) for a surface observatory as a function of length
        - What are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Prof. Matthew Evans (MIT)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 12:30 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Andreas Freise
    • 13:00 - 14:10 Lunch
    • 14:10 - 17:40 Technologies
      Enabling technologies for 3G observatories
      • 14:10 Newtonian Noise 25'
        1) what is the NN noise as a function of depth? 
        2) assess the various approaches to mitigation of NN and the R&D — nature, place —  and timeline for R&D to choose among them
        3) constraints on Observatory design (e.g., spherical ends for underground instruments)
        Speaker: Jan Harms (University of Urbino - INFN Firenze)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 14:35 Newtonian Noise subtraction R&D 15'
        What kind of technology do we need to efficiently subtract NN?
        Speaker: Jo van den Brand (Nikhef)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 14:50 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Prof. Vuk Mandic (University of Minnesota)
      • 15:20 Cryogenics for future GW detectors 25'
        a) impact of the cryogenic solution on the interferometer design and on the infrastructure; 
        b) what R&D we need?
        c) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: rana adhikari (caltech)
        Material: Slides unknown type file} pdf file}
      • 15:45 An example of cryogenic, underground detector: KAGRA 25'
        What kind of difficulties have been encountered?,
        What technology needs still to be developed
        Speaker: Prof. Shinji Miyoki (Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, the University of Tokyo)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 16:10 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Fulvio Ricci
      • 16:40 3G Observatory design options 30'
        a) interferometry  — topology, filter cavities, etc.
        b) test mass configurations e.g.,Kahili cavities
        c) redundancy, null stream, polarization
        d) xylophones, possibilities for sharing Beam Tubes
        e) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Dr. Stefan Hild (University of Glasgow)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 17:10 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Dr. Lisa Barsotti (LIGO-MIT)
    • 17:40 - 18:30 Poster session
      The poster session will be open by a series of flash talks (2 min - 2 slides) by the poster presenters
      • 17:40 Amorphous silicon for highly-reflective mirror coatings 50'
        To match requirements of ET and possible cryogenic upgrades to aLIGO, thermal noise in highly-reflective mirror coatings has to be significanlty reduced. Due to a high refractive index and low mechanical loss at cryogenic temperatures, amorphous silicon (aSi) is a very promising material.
        The absorption of highly-reflective aSi/SiO2 coatings at 1550nm has been shown to be about 1000ppm and therefore far too high for application in gravitational wave detectors. This work presents investigations of the effect of heat treatment, cooling and different deposition methods on the absorption of aSi coatings, promising absorption results at 2um compared to 1550nm, and investigates the optimisation of the coating design to make use of aSi in mirror coatings for future detectors possible.
        Speaker: Mrs. Jessica Steinlechner (University of Glasgow)
      • 17:40 Large band low frequency sensors based on Watt’s linkage for future generations of interferometric detectors of gravitational waves 50'
        A Folded Pendulum is a very effective mechanical system for the implementation of uniaxial (horizontal and/or vertical) and triaxial seismometers and accelerometers for ground, space and underwater applications, including ultra-high vacuum and cryogenic ones.
        The Folded Pendulum innovative architecture developed by the University of Salerno, based on the classic Watt-linkage mechanical configuration, allows the design and implementation of very large band sensors (10−7 Hz – 100 Hz), characterized by very high quality factors (Q > 2500 in air, Q > 15000 in medium vacuum) and sensitivities that, for the most common applications, do not depend on the mechanics, but only on the readout techniques (< 10-12 m/sqrt(Hz) with typical Virgo LVDT readout). These unique features, coupled with other very relevant characteristics, like full scalability, high compactness (< 10 cm), lightness (< 300 g), high directivity (> 10000), tuneability (typical mechanical resonance frequencies are in the band 70 mHz – 10 Hz), very high immunity to environmental noises make this class of sensors suitable both as seismic and newtonian noise sensors and as control sensors for mechanical suspensions for future generation of interferometric detection of Gravitational  Waves.
        Two different versions of Folded Pendulums, configured both as seismometers (without force feedback) and as accelerometers (with force feed-back), integrated with a standard Virgo LVDT readout and the new electronics control boards developed by the Pisa group for Advanced Virgo, are presented here together with the main relevant characteristics and parameters as resulting from tests performed in the Applied Physics Laboratory of the University of Salerno and in the Electronics  Laboratory at Virgo (Cascina) EGO.
        Keywords: Seismometer, Accelerometer, Folded Pendulum, Monolithic Sensor, digital control, data acquisition.
        Speaker: Prof. Fabrizio Barone (University of Salerno and INFN - Sez. Napoli)
        Material: Poster pdf file} Slides pdf file}
      • 17:40 Length sensing and control for Einstein Telescope Low Frequency 50'
        In this poster we describe a feasible length sensing and control scheme for the low frequency interferometers of the Einstein Telescope (ET-LF) along with the techniques used to optimise several optical parameters, including the length of the recycling cavities and the modulation frequencies, using two numerical interferometer simulation packages:
        Optickle and Finesse. The investigations have suggested the use of certain combinations of sidebands to obtain independent information about the different degrees of freedom. We have also looked at various combinations of phase and amplitude modulated sidebands to obtain a diagonal sensing matrix.
        Speaker: Ms. Vaishali Adya (AEI,Max Planck for Gravitational Wave Physics)
        Material: Poster pdf file}
      • 17:40 Losses estimation in a 300-m filter cavity and quantum noise reduction in the KAGRA gravitational-wave detector 50'
        The sensitivity of the gravitational-wave detector KAGRA, at present under construction, will be limited by quantum noise in a large fraction of its spectrum. The most promising technique to increase the detector sensitivity is the injection of squeezed states of light, where the squeezing angle is rotated by a Fabry-P ́erot filter cavity. One of the main issues in the filter cavity design and realization are the optical losses given by the mirror surface imperfections. We present a study of the specifications for the mirrors to be used in a 300-m filter cavity for the KAGRA detector. A prototype of the cavity will be constructed at National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), in the infrastructure of the former TAMA interferometer. We also discuss the potential improvement of the KAGRA sensitivity, based on a model of various realistic sources of losses and their influence on the squeezing amplitude. The results of this work can be easily extended to any gravitational-wave interferometric detector planning the use of filter cavities with length of several hundreds of meters.
        Speaker: eleonora capocasa (APC- Université Paris 7)
      • 17:40 Parametric amplification to improve the sensitivity of next generation detectors at high frequency. 50'
        We would like to discuss the possibility of further improvement of the ET/CE sensitivity at high frequencies using parametric amplification techniques. There are several regimes so we can combine those ideas to make one discussion session.
        Speaker: Prof. Kentaro Somiya (Tokyo Institute of Technology)
      • 17:40 Seismic noise studies at the ET candidate sites 50'
        We present the current status of the seismic studies using the seismometers developed by the Warsaw group. We show the measurements of the sensitivity of the instruments. The instruments have been installed at the Ksiaz Castle site in Poland, and currently we are installing at two additional sites: the Matra mine in Hungary, and in Sos Ennatos mine in Sardinia. We will present the preliminary results, and discuss further installations and measurements.
        Speaker: Prof. Tomasz Bulik (University of Warsaw)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 17:40 Results of Russian groups as the ET-ASPERA research 50'
        The Russian Consortium formed by groups of three Institution SAI MSU,PD MSU and INR RAS has carried out a research in the frame of  ET-R&D program,sec.W1-W3.The following results have been achieved
        Some universal algorithm of a “search for coincidence” gravitational signals with neutrino events in the 100 second window was developed with statistical estimation of the “right detection”probability (W1).                                                                                                                                   The spectrum density and correlation properties of seismic perturbations in the Baksan Neutrino Observatory  were measured during a quiet period of  time.  The “newtonian gravity-gradient noise  was calculated according to the experimental data of seismic spectrum  density along the main tunnel of the BNO RAS (W2).
                                                                                                                                                Mirrors  at the CaF2 substrate formed a solid body FP cavity were tested  at low temperature.  Evolution of the integral optical characteristics  such as finesse and contrast  was monitored  in the presence of optical pump 10 – 400 mW  at the temperature interval 300-5 K. Observable variations did not exceed 20% (W3)
        A new technology for manufacturing of silicon micro resonators with the whispering gallery mode was developed. Numerical models of micro resonator coupling with other optical elements were elaborated using the software package Comsol Mutiphysics (W3).
        A mechanism for suppression of parametrical instability in a new generation of gravitational detectors was proposed through the selection of optimal curvature of mirrors and using resonators with sparse spectrum components. The effect of optical rigidity was recommended for enhancing sensitivity behind the standard quantum limit (W4).
        Speaker: Prof. Valentin Rudenko (Sternberg Astronomical Institute of Moscoe State University)
        Material: Poster powerpoint filedown arrow
  • Wednesday, 3 February 2016
    • 08:30 - 11:05 Global Scenario and Roadmapping
      • 08:30 GWIC roadmap update 20'
        Highlights on the update of the GWIC roadmap
        Speaker: Prof. Sheila Rowan (University of Glasgow)
        Material: Slides powerpoint file}
      • 08:50 Discussion 10'
        Speaker: Prof. Kentaro Somiya (Tokyo Institute of Techonology)
      • 09:00 Evolution Timeline in LIGO 15'
        a) What are the current instrument timelines for initial operation and incremental upgrades
        b) What plausible timelines do we see for major observatories in the US and in Europe
        c) What are the key questions that need to be pursued to firm up timeline?
        d) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: David Shoemaker (MIT)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 09:15 Evolution timeline in Virgo 15'
        a) What are the current instrument timelines for initial operation and incremental upgrades
        b) What plausible timelines do we see for major observatories in the US and in Europe
        c) What are the key questions that need to be pursued to firm up timeline?
        d) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Giovanni Losurdo (INFN Firenze)
      • 09:30 ET possible timeline 15'
        The possible timeline of the Einstein Telescope project, considering the European and international scenario, is discussed
        Speaker: Michele Punturo (INFN Perugia)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 09:45 Discussion 30'
        Speaker: Prof. Kentaro Somiya (Tokyo Institute of Techonology)
      • 10:15 Summary of the technology session and of the poster session: What R&D do we need? 25'
        Based on the outcomes of the Technology session, in this talk the main R&D activities needed to develop future GW detectors are discussed
        Speaker: Viviana Fafone (University of Rome "Tor Vergata" - INFN Roma2)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 10:40 Discussion 25'
        Speaker: Matteo Barsuglia (APC-CNRS)
    • 11:05 - 11:25 Coffee Break
    • 11:25 - 13:15 Global Scenario and Roadmapping
      • 11:25 Funding large science projects 20'
        a) what funding avenues exist for ~1BN scale projects? 
        b) what recent examples do we have to help us form successful proposals?
        c) funding - how and when to decide on a global 3rd gen. scenery? We will need a good understanding of options and probability of funding levels. How to deal with the uncertainty?
        d) what near-term activities should be put in motion from the standpoint of strategy?
        e) what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: David Reitze (LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 11:45 Governance of a 3G observatory 20'
        Which kind of governance shall we prefer (also depending on the funding scheme):
        - particle physics like (CERN, ILC,…)?
        - astronomy like?
        what are the next actions in this domain?
        Speaker: Federico Ferrini (EGO)
        Material: Slides pdf file}
      • 12:05 Discussion 20'
        Speaker: Dr. Albert Lazzarini (Caltech - LIGO)
      • 12:25 Setting up the path-Teams-Next steps 50'
        Speakers: Michele Punturo (INFN), David Reitze (LIGO Laboratory, California Institute of Technology), Prof. Sheila Rowan (University of Glasgow)
    • 13:15 - 14:45 Lunch